Reviewing and reciting the text.

Take 5-6 minutes to review and recite the text with the help of the following context clues:

a) Numerical statements, such as "There are two reasons ...".

b) Rhetorical questions.

c) Introductory summaries: "Let me first explain..."; "The topic which I intend to discuss is interesting because...".

d) Development of an idea, signalled by statements such Reviewing and reciting the text. as: "Another reason..."; "On the one хэнд..."; "Therefore..."; "Since..."; "In addition..."; etc.

e) Transitions, such as "Let us turn our attention to..."; "If these facts are true, then..."; etc.

f) Chronology of ideas, signalled by "First... "; "The next..."; "Finally...,"; etc.

g) Emphasis of ideas, such as "This is important because..."; "The significant results Reviewing and reciting the text. were..."; "Let me repeat..."; etc.

h) Summary of ideas, signalled by "In conclusion...; As I have shown... "; etc.

Section 2. Grammar workout

Common verbs that take verbal objects

Verbs used with Gerunds:admit, avoid, deny, enjoy, finish, justify, quit, recommend, suggest,


Verbs used with infinitives:agree, allow, arrange, attempt, cause Reviewing and reciting the text., choose, decide, enable, hope, instruct, know (how), learn (how), permit, persuade, require, seem, teach (how), tell, use, warn.

Infinitives are used withhave, and bare infinitives are used with let and make: I have to do my research paper by next Monday. The professor won’t let us waste time Reviewing and reciting the text. on this experiment. Necessity makes you look for options.

Gerunds, by their meaning,are verbal nouns and, as such, are generally used as subjects or objects of verbs or as objects of prepositions. Infinitives can also be subjects and objects.

Playing (to play) cards is enjoyable, (gerund as subject of a verb Reviewing and reciting the text.).

He enjoys going to good restaurants, (gerund as object of a verb).

He avoids eating junk food, (gerund as object of a verb).

He passes the time by playing cards, (gerund as object of a preposition).

You can solve this problem by using a computer, (gerund as object of Reviewing and reciting the text. a preposition).

Note: All two- and three-word verb phrases that can be followed by verbals are used with gerunds, not infinitives. This is true even when theverb phrase ends with the word to.

I am looking forward to visiting with you next summer.

I cannot agree Reviewing and reciting the text. to going to New Orleans.

My partner is opposed to our participating in this deal.

Identify and correct errors involving verbs and verbals

Moisture regularly (have entered/is entering/entered/enters) the atmosphere through the evaporation of water. The warm air rises (to quickly condense/ quickly condensing/ quickly condensed) into Reviewing and reciting the text. rain. Rain falls when the microscopic water droplets in clouds(are colliding/have collided/collide/will collide). If the temperature outside drops to the dew point, relative humidity (has become/ becomes/will become/became) 100 per cent and fog is likely to form. At air temperature above about 4 °C (39 °F), ice crystals Reviewing and reciting the text. in clouds (will melt/have melted/melt/are melting).

By uneven (heating/heat/heats) of land and water surfaces along coastlines local winds are created. In thunderstorms, the motion of the air also causes electric charges (built/building/to build) up inside the cloud, producing lightning. Flashes of Reviewing and reciting the text. lightning heat the surrounding air, (causing/to cause) the air to expand violently.

Weak fronts, where the two air masses are close in temperature, often pass (unnotice/to unnotice/unnoticed /unnoticing). Generally moving from west to east fronts follow (to curve/curved/curving) paths. A front may be warm or Reviewing and reciting the text. cold, (depending/to depend/depends) upon which air mass is pushing the air ahead of it.

In the United States, weather forecasts(are giving/have given/gave/give) barometric pressure in inches. The temperature-humidity index (THI) sometimes (mentioning/mentioned/to mention/is mentioned) in forecasts was once Reviewing and reciting the text. called the discomfort index. Some parts of the weather forecast seem easy enough (understood/to understand/understading/understand).

Problems with verbals

Any of these verbals – gerund, or infinitive – may be incorrectly used when another one of them is required, depending on the meaning. Take, for example, two sentences:

· I stopped Reviewing and reciting the text. to talk with my friend. The infinitive expresses purpose – I stopped because I wanted to talk with my friend.

· I stopped talking with my friend. The gerund is an object – I stopped this action because I was pressed for time and had to go.


Section 1. Guidelines Reviewing and reciting the text. for intensive reading of ESP texts